❉ Blog number 17 on diagrams in art and culture covers some of the ideas, images and research projects I discovered during a spring-time residency on the island of Jeju in South Korea. The two new drawings I developed following my stay there are on show in a group exhibition at the Chusa Memorial Museum from Oct 15th ~ Nov 17th, 2019.
( United States Geological Survey Landsat data, Robert Simmon, Google Earth, 2000 )
On the dark cliff hundreds of weeds are withering,
And yet the orchid bounds with vigor.
The noble person dwells in steep, isolated places.
He is indeed different from normal people.
- Chen Hsien Chang (Ming dynasty)
Mikyung and Do il's main studios are in Yongin city just south of Seoul, but they travel regularly with their daughter Yule to Mikyung's hometown on Jeju to maintain the family tangerine orchard. The residency program is run from Mikyung's family home there, alongside a barn converted by Do il in to studio space. Once all the artists had arrived at the orchard we were welcomed by a Kayagum concert held beneath the heavy bows of one of Jeju's ancient Hackberry trees. Afterwards, we set about exploring the island and learning more about it's most famous historical resident Chusa Kim Jeong-hui, exiled scholar and man with two hundred names.
Opened in 2010, the Chusa Memorial Museum is situated next to the original site of Chusa's home on Jeju, which has now been rebuilt in traditional materials. The Museum is mostly subterranean, with three exhibition halls, a lecture theatre and conservation room. Above ground, the minimalist memorial hall with its single circular window references one of Chusa's most iconic paintings titled 'Sehando', or 'Winter scene' (figs. 2, 3).
figure 2: Chusa Memorial Hall
( designed by Seung Hyo Sang )
figure 4: Portrait of Chusa Kim Jeong-hui (public domain)
Chusa was 55 when he was banished to Jeju on September the 4th, 1840. The ruler of Korea at the time, King Heon-jong, was young and relatively powerless, and a number of influential aristocratic families took this as their chance to advance their positions within the royal court by any means necessary.
Charges were made against Chusa following his promotion to vice minister of justice and deputy envoy to Qing China, and despite being entirely unfounded, the accusations were serious enough for Chusa to initially be sentenced to death. A friend in government however managed to convince officials to instead send him in exile to remotest 'Daejeong-hyeon', the archaic name for southwest Jeju, where he would spend the next 8 years of his life in productive, scholarly solitude.
Geology and the molten roots of an island
As you arrive by air the most distinctive feature of the island is Mount Halla or Hallasan, an enormous shield volcano and the highest peak in South Korea. The remainder of the island is relatively flat, which highlights the 300 plus other volcanic cones that protrude abruptly amongst the fields. These surface features connect underground as a colossal volcanic network of structures, a so-called ‘magma plumbing system’ that extends up to 60 km deep (figs. 5,6).
( Yoon Sun et.al., Korea Rural Community and Agriculture Corporation, 2006, scale 1:150,000. )
figure 6: Diagrams of Lithospheric Structures Beneath Jeju Island
Image courtesy of Jung-Hun Song (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Between 2013 and 2015, a team of Geologists from Seoul and Busan used 20 seismographic stations across the island to record waves passing through the earth from the 484 different earthquakes that had occurred in neighboring regions during that period.
Earthquake waves are known to travel at different speeds through different types of rock. By carefully comparing the arrival times of the waves at each station against which routes they had taken through the earth, (a process known as 'Teleseismic Traveltime Tomography'), the scientists were able to model the enormous bodies of magma beneath Jeju, giving us our first look at the vast molten roots of the island and a clearer understanding of how these systems develop (fig. 6).
Biology and the genetic roots the orchid
Chusa's brush of choice was made of rat’s whiskers, a material which he found combined strength with sensitivity, and also allowed him to abruptly change the direction of his stroke whilst painting. With each new painting he would often coin a new 'Ho' or pen-name when signing the piece, to suggest a particular persona in association with the image.
figure 8: Orchid painting, Chusa
(unknown date, public domain)
Over his life time Chusa created over 200 different pen-names for his calligraphy, poems and paintings, and according to his own accounts, in his 70 years he wore down 10 ink stones and 1,000 brushes whilst developing the distinctive Chusa style or 'Chusache'.
His most famous orchid masterpiece is said to have been made after not having painted a single orchid for 20 years, created in an absent minded moment as a gift for his young servant (figure 8).
It's unlikely that his servant appreciated what he'd been given, but a local artisan certainly knew it's worth and continued to beg and pester Chusa for the scroll until it suddenly one day disappeared.
Later, Chusa wryly added this tale to the painting itself in his unique 'Chusache' script (fig. 8).
About 10% of all flowering plants species are orchids, with somewhere between 20,000 and 30,000 species and over 70,000 hybrids and cultivars. Scientists are currently in the process of mapping out the extensive evolutionary lineage of orchids and in 2017, a study published in Nature Magazine announced that an international consortium of researchers had sequenced the genome of Apostasia shenzhenica, a primitive 'Grass Orchid' whose appearance is only barely recognisable as an orchid.
By comparing it's genome with known sequences in other species, they were able to estimate the time at which it diverged or 'split off' from other orchids. Their study also gives us a better idea of when the 'Most Recent Common Ancestor' (MRCA) of all orchids existed, now believed to be around 200 million years ago at the dawn of the age of the dinosaurs (figure 9).
figure 9: Phylogenetic tree diagram of MADS-box genes involved in orchid morphological evolution.
Image courtesy of Jie-Yu Wang and Rolf Lohaus (CC BY 4.0)
In developing the two new drawings for the residency on Jeju, I was interested in the notion of absence within an image, what an artist chooses to show and chooses not to, but also in terms of what can be said to lie hidden behind the surface appearance of the things which surround us.
Written deep within the fabric of nature is evidence of innumerable events that have occurred in deep geological and evolutionary time in order for volcanoes and orchids to exist, and it's only by means of years of collaborative investigation using ingenious new techniques and technologies, that we have come to be able to detect and read them.
As geologists diagram the molten roots beneath the rock on which Chusa wandered, and geneticists piece together the genetic roots of each of Chusa's orchids, both groups are finding that these structures stretch backwards through space and time in way that Chusa himself could never have imagined.
Below are images of the finished drawings, along with a collection of Chusa's orchid paintings, which are now available online in high resolution as part of Google's Arts and Culture Project.
Tear glands, tear ducts, tear drops
(Lacrimal gland and ducts with Lithospheric anomalies)
Michael Whittle, 2019, Ink pencil and watercolour on paper, 111.2 x 78.9 cm
Jung-Hun Song et.al., 2018, Imaging of Lithospheric Structure Beneath Jeju Volcanic Island by Teleseismic Traveltime Tomography, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 10.1029.
The roots of the Orchid
(Divergent phylogenetic tree with common ancestor and desiccation)
Michel Whittle, 2019, Ink pencil and watercolour on paper, 111.2 x 78.9 cm
Guo-Qiang Zhang et.al., 2017, The Apostasia genome and the evolution of orchids. Nature 549: 379-383